Coronavirus Prevention Tips

By Dr. Pallavi Sharma

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COVID-19 is a coronavirus that can cause severe illness, even death. It can be spread from person to person through droplets expelled by coughing or sneezing.

It can also spread from one animal to another. People with compromised immune systems are at higher risk for severe illness and death from COVID-19. The CDC recommends that people who are at high risk for severe COVID-19 infection or disease take additional precautions to protect themselves from getting sick.

People who get this infection may develop pneumonia or other lung problems and need to be treated in the hospital.

Covid-19 is different from the seasonal coronavirus in that it causes a high fever and body aches.

COVID-19 Overview

COVID-19 is a coronavirus. It’s part of a family of viruses known as Coronaviridae.

The first recognized strain of COVID-19 was isolated in 2019 in Wuhan, China, and has been spreading rapidly around the world.

The virus is not only making its way around the world via air travel; it’s also spreading at schools and hospitals, even though people might not recognize that they’re infected.

This particular strain is highly contagious and can lead to pneumonia, bronchitis, and even death if left untreated.

It is spread either through air droplets (by sneezing or coughing) or by direct contact with contaminated surfaces or objects that are contaminated with infected viral particles.

COVID-19 Variants?

COVID-19 is a virus that has hit many countries. COVID-19 infection causes symptoms similar to SARS and MERS. The first cases were reported in the Middle East, but it has since spread to Europe and other parts of the world.

Coronaviruses can mutate, which means they can change into a new form that is more harmful to humans and other animals. When this happens, it’s important to understand why it happened and how it spreads.

Coronaviruses cause mild to severe respiratory illnesses in humans, with symptoms including fever, cough, sore throat, and stuffy or runny nose.

Coronaviruses can be transmitted from person-to-person through direct contact with nasal secretions, phlegm, or saliva droplets. The virus is also shed in urine and feces.

The coronavirus was first identified in the early 2000s in Southeast Asia and has been spreading rapidly since then. In 2013, the first known case of SARS occurred in China.

The virus spread to several other countries, including Hong Kong and Singapore, resulting in hundreds of cases of severe illness and death.

In March 2019, coronavirus was detected in an 11-year-old boy who had traveled from Qatar to Kuwait in August 2018 (approximately one month before he got sick).

On June 1st, 2018, an adult woman died after being hospitalized for respiratory illness symptoms (including fever), which were consistent with those caused by coronavirus infections. (MERS)

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected many countries with a large number of deaths, chronic disabilities, and financial crises.

 

The World Health Organization (WHO) has announced its work on close monitoring of coronaviruses and there are three types of variants that they closely monitor.

  • Variant of Concerns
  • Variant of interest
  • Variant under monitoring

Concerns

Variants classified as VOCs(Variants of Concern) are associated with one or more of the following changes that pose a risk to global health:

  • increased spread
  • Increase in virulence and severity of disease
  • Zoonotic transmission
  • The number of deaths and admissions
  • Percentage of antibodies in people with vaccinations

Monitor public health measures; awareness, vaccines, hand hygiene, community spread. In 2019, circulant variants include alpha, beta, and gamma. In 2022, circulating variants are delta and omicron.

A topic of interest

Genetic changes for viruses will change their following properties, such as,

  • Disease severity
  • Transmission
  • increase number of COVID cases (Prevalence)
  • Number of late diagnostics and diagnostic escapes

Variants Under Observation

Some variants of COVID-19 will change their properties with time, but they are not strong enough to do community transmission. but can have a future risk of global transmission.

Symptoms of COVID-19

COVID-19 is a respiratory illness that causes cough, congestion, and fever. The virus can lead to pneumonia.

Symptoms include:

  • Coughing
  • Congestion or shortness of breath
  • Fever (less than 101 degrees Fahrenheit)
  • Chills or muscle aches
  • Cough
  • New loss of taste or smell
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Malaise
  • Muscle or body aches
  • Sore throat
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Congestion or runny nose
  • Skin rashes
  • Diarrhea

Symptoms can appear early or within 14 days after exposure.

Post-COVID SYNDROME

Some symptoms following a COVID-19 infection may persist for more than 1 month, even after the initial symptoms.

  • Excersional dyspneoa
  • Fatigue
  • Dry cough
  • Headache
  • Chest pain
  • Impaired daily function and mobility

Insomnia or sleep issues?

Increased heartbeat

Nausea, diahorrhea

Brain fog or reduced memories?

Discoloration and swelling of the hands and feet

Loss of smell and taste

Mucromycosis (fatal fungal infection)

Causes of Coronavirus

In the first year of the pandemic, people were very afraid of contracting COVID-19. They have tried to control the spread by wearing masks and not coming into contact with other people.

But every day, new risks pop up and people begin to put their safety above everything else. Covid-19 is a virus that causes coughs and sneezing, but most people fear that it can cause a deadly lung infection unless they do everything just right.

Covid 19 is a virus family with similar characteristics.

  • Cov 2 SRAS
  • MERS

Transmission of COVID-19

First, they are all highly contagious and can be transmitted from person to person through direct contact or by touching infected objects or surfaces, such as household items, door handles, and doorknobs.

Second, they can cause severe illness or death in humans, with some strains being particularly deadly.

Third, they have been seen in many countries around the world, including the United States and Canada.

The current outbreak is affecting more than half of the states in the US and has resulted in over half a million cases so far this year alone.

COVID can cause pneumonia, respiratory illness, and fever. It can also lead to kidney failure if left untreated.

If you or someone you know has been diagnosed with COVID, we recommend that you contact your doctor immediately for further instructions on how to prevent the spread of this disease.

Treatment of COVID 19

The most common symptoms of COVID-19 include fever, headache, muscle pain, sore throat, cough, and vomiting.

A person may also have a rash or diarrhea.

The virus can cause serious illness in adults and children over the age of 5 years. Some people have died from COVID-19 infections.

  • The first step to treating the COVID-19 virus is to make sure your home is safe and secure.
  • Vaccinate against COVID-19

You can also purchase antiviral medications from your local pharmacy or medical supply store.

  • If you have not yet been vaccinated against COVID-19 and are at risk for infection, it is important to take all recommended precautions and wear protective clothing when around people who are sick with the virus.

Those who are sick with COVID-19 should also avoid contact with other people as much as possible so they do not spread the virus further.

If you have been exposed to COVID-19, you should stay home until at least 48 hours after the symptoms are gone.

Until then, you should wear layers of clothing that cover your whole body.

Masks and Eye protection

whenever possible to prevent spreading the virus through coughing and sneezing on others. Thus wear a mask whenever possible.

  • Get plenty of rest.
  • Take medicines like acetaminophen and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen.
  • Hydrate well

If you are having a cold-like illness, over-the-counter cough and cold medications will help you with the symptoms, such as Mucinex or Sudafed.

You should also disinfect surfaces and objects that have come into contact with bodily fluids (including urine) before leaving your home for an extended period of time because these items could harbor traces of COVID-19 for up to 10 days after exposure without symptoms.

Antivirals

Treatment for COVID-19 usually involves a combination of antiviral drugs, which fight the virus and reduce the severity of symptoms.

There are no specific antivirals for COVID-19, but it is believed antivirals that have been used for HIV/AIDS may have an impact on the coronavirus.

These antivirals will inhibit the multiplication of the viruses.

  • Remdesivir (Veklury): intravenous (IV) infusions
  • Nirmatrelvir with ritonavir (Paxlovid: oral drugs)
  • Molnupiravir (Lagevrio): this will give best results if used within the first 5 days of the illness.
  • Monoclonal antibody therapy
  • Bebtelovimab: a monoclonal antibody that is given as an IV injection.
  • Bebtelovimab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to the coronavirus and neutralizes it.
  • Bebtelovimab is used to treat severe COVID-19 infections in adults and children.

Prevention COVID-19.

Corona viral infection is a deadly disease. However, there are some things you can do to help prevent getting sick:

Vaccine

The best way to treat a COVID-19 infection is to get vaccinated. But if you or your family members are pregnant, you should consult a doctor before getting the vaccine.

Keep a Social Distance

The flu is spread through airborne particles, and it doesn’t matter how much you shake hands with someone, you’re not going to get sick if you’re in close physical contact with them.

Hand Hygiene

Wash your hands often. Use soap and water for at least 20 seconds and make sure your hands are completely dry before touching your face or blowing your nose.

Avoid touching your face or blowing your nose unless you have to. If you do touch your face or blow your nose, use a tissue instead of your hands when possible.

Stay Home

If you are having COVID-19 syn]motoms, stay home from work or school and avoid close contact with others.

Good Ventilation

Maintaining proper ventilation at your premises will help to reduce the transmission of coronavirus.

Testing COVID-19

There are two investigations that can be conducted as

  • Covid-19-antigen test
  • Covid PCR

Covid Vaccine

The best way to protect yourself from the pandemic is by getting vaccinated against COVID-19, but there are a few different vaccines available that are meant for different groups of people. These are the most common types of COVID-19 vaccines available.

There are four main kinds:

  • Whole inactivated virus
  • Vital protein vaccine
  • Viral vector
  • Nucleic acid vaccine (RNA and DNA)

The COVID vaccine can be administered to people older than 12 years. The FDA has approved the Pfizer vaccination for children aged 12 and up, as well as the Moderna vaccine and the Johnson & Johnson vaccine for people aged 18 and up.

  • Pfizer-BioNTech administers two dosages three weeks apart.
  • Moderna was administered in two doses, four weeks apart.

The Johnson & Johnson immunization is given in a single dose.

The FDA reports that COVID-19 vaccinations are currently 95% effective against the COVID virus.

Boosters can be given up to 6 months following the initial vaccination.

The Pfizer or Moderna vaccines are approved for use as boosters. If you have received Johnson & Johnson or AstraZeneca as the initial vaccine, the booster dose can be replaced with either Pfizer or Moderna two months after the initial vaccinations.

But the FDA recommends having a booster even earlier than 3 months following initial vaccinations for high-risk patients such as those with advanced age, immune-compromised, etc.

Risk Factors

SARS-CoV-2 is an airborne virus that primarily affects the respiratory system. There are several risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection that include:

Age

People aged more than 50 years old are at risk of serious outcomes.

People with Underlying Medical Conditions

  • Cancer patients or under chemotherapy
  • Organ failure (Chronic kidney disease, Chronic liver disease, Chronic lung disease, Cystic fibrosis)
  • Neurological conditions
  • Immune compromised conditions: diabetes (both type 1 or type 2), HIV, Sickle cell disease
  • Heart conditions
  • Overweight and obesity
  • Immunosuppressive medication conditions: monoclonal antibodies

Pregnancy

As there is an immunocompromised state in pregnant women, there is a high risk of getting COVID Pneumonia. As a result, coronavirus vaccination during pregnancy is advised.

When to See the Doctor

If you have been diagnosed with COVID-19, it is important that you follow your doctor’s recommendations as to when and how often you should see a medical provider.

This is especially true if you have symptoms of the disease but are not yet showing signs of illness.

  • If you have a fever, pain in the joints, muscle aches or headaches, nausea or vomiting, diarrhea, coughing, or sneezing that has lasted more than 3 weeks, even if it’s mild, you should call your doctor immediately.
  • You may also experience symptoms such as swollen lymph nodes (swollen glands), and abnormal bruising or bleeding from the lungs or nose. These are all signs that something more serious might be going on and requires immediate medical attention.
  • If you have a fever that doesn’t seem to be going away (this is often an indicator of infection)
  • If you have trouble breathing or feel weak (respiratory distress),
  • If you feel dizzy or lightheaded (?meningitis)
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TeleHealthDoc articles are all written and reviewed by MDs, PhDs, NPs, or PharmDs and are for informational purposes only. This information does not constitute and should not be relied on for professional medical advice. Always talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits of any treatment.

Dr. Pallavi Sharma

Dr. Pallavi Sharma is one of Melbourne’s best, well respected cosmetic doctors and aims to provide longstanding anti-aging benefits for her clients. With over 11 years experience in Performing cosmetic procedures, Dr. Sharma has lectured medical professionals regarding cosmetic treatments and is heavily involved in providing up to date cosmetic treatments to her clients and friends.
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